Views: On this week’s global protests

People of all colours and backgrounds around the world have united in peaceful protest at the killing of George Floyd at the hands of the police, yet another in a long line of killings in the USA all centred around race.

Racism is a cancer which cripples our society’s growth. Peaceful protest is understandably a significant way for people to express their grief and outrage. But it’s worth remembering that, as well as protest, there are so many other actions we can take which will also bring about change. And in my own opinion, education will play a major role in the way forward.

That is why I am asking you to support progress in a very specific way.

You and I know that theatre is a powerful educator. When theatre comes back – as it will – we will need all those companies who have produced radical, challenging and exciting work around the black experience to be primed and ready to leap out of the starting gate.

If you, like me, feel that you must contribute to the protest in some way, but feel that you haven’t quite found your own way in which to do this, then do something different. Donate! In particular, donate to the many excellent theatre and arts companies which are producing great work in sharing and exploring the experiences of People of Colour.

In the UK

Donate to Eclipse Theatre, who produced and toured a terrific play in early 2020, Janice Okoh’s THE GIFT (review here)

Donate to Tamasha and Paines Plough and the Bush Theatre who produced and toured Zia Ahmed’s I WANNA BE YOURS (review here)

Donate to The Bush Theatre, who have produced Temi Wilkey’s THE HIGH TABLE with Birmingham Repertory Theatre (review here)

Donate to The Young Vic which produced the UK premiere of the Pulitzer Prize-winning FAIRVIEW (review here)

In the UK and internationally

Donate to Simeilia Hodge-Dallaway’s (founder of award-winning ARTISTIC DIRECTORS OF THE FUTURE organisation) new project BEYOND THE CANON to draw students attention to literary diversity by championing hidden and forgotten plays written by Black, Asian, LatinX and Middle Eastern playwrights by making these texts available to students in the UK and internationally during the hiatus in global education systems. This is a brand new project today and I am thrilled to have been the first donor- so who will join me? Donate here

In the USA

Donate to award-winning Chicago playwright Reginald Edmund’s BLACK VOICES BLACK WORDS INTERNATIONAL project.

Whilst this is my own personal selection of my own recent engagements and experiences, I appreciate that there are many other great organisations which I haven’t highlighted here, so if you know them better than I do, why not donate to them also?

Change is coming, and you can help drive it. Use your money as a way of planting seeds of hope and thought for the future, to help these organisations’ contributions to conversations about important work flourish and grow. And hopefully to lead us all into a more enlightened and caring world where difference is no longer hated but celebrated.

Time to Remember: From Music Hall to Variety – a personal celebration

The Metropolitan Edgware Road, demolished 1963.

My love of Music Hall stems from childhood, when my father was given a beautiful three double-album set of vinyl records by a friend in the record industry. The albums completely fascinated me – on the front were old photographs of a very ornate theatre façade (later I found it to be the Metropolitan Edgware Road, one of the most beloved of Music Halls and known affectionately as “The Met”). Inside the gatefold sleeves of these three albums were black and white photographs of unfamiliar (to me) faces, and for each of them one track was given as an example of their work. And on the back of the albums, beautiful images of the programmes for these halls, with exciting artwork of glamorous showgirls and lovely typography. What was not to like? At that age, knowing nothing of the hundred-year legacy of music hall and variety which had come before, I slipped one of the discs out and put it on the turntable, curious to find out what this all was.

Some of it had aged pretty badly, it seemed. Certainly to my ten-year old ears this was hard to understand, at first. And then I came across a chap called Horace Kenney, who I had never heard of before. His act was “A Music Hall Trial Turn”, based on an audition if you will, of someone not very good, played straight, and all the better for it. Then I could connect with it- this was someone pretending to be bad and doing it so skilfully that it made me squeak with laughter. The pitiful photo of Mr Kenney confirmed what a dead loss he was, and then the connections started forming – Les Dawson and his off-key piano playing, the song-mangling of Jonathan and Darlene Edwards (she mangled the vocals, he wrestled with the piano- and lost)- this was where it had all emanated from. As I played more and more of the discs, sometimes better-known names sprung out- Will Hay, for example – and although this was only audio, as most of these performances had been captured for release on 78rpm discs many years before – a flavour of the acts still came through.

The triple album set was obviously a labour of love – each album of the set was nicely titled Matinee, First House and Second House, reflecting the type of acts you might expect to see at each different performance. The British Music Hall Society contributed much to this set, and the sleeve notes were useful too. Released by World Records, a subscription arm of EMI (I believe), this set may not have been for general consumption, but to me it was something that fired up an interest in Music Hall that has lasted ever since.

Programme from the Alhambra, Leicester Square, demolished 1937 and replaced by the Odeon Leicester Square.

Researching more, the performers were fascinating – most burned bright and then disappeared into oblivion, others had long-standing and affectionately remembered catalogues. Even into the 1950s tours with titles such as “Music Hall Golden Memories” gathered together the remaining huge stars of earlier times such as GH Elliott and Hetty King, and more recently Max Miller – all of whom were touring the UK in a kind of “best of Music Hall”, to nostalgic receptions. But this was the time after Music Hall, when even its successor, Variety, was falling out of popular favour as the newer mediums of television and cinema took precedence; increasingly seen as belonging to the past, audiences simply fell out of the habit of “a night on the halls”.

Prompted by the Last Night of the Met, Edgware Road in April 1963 (which turned hundreds away and surviving variety stars vied to be on the bill) Gerald Glover and Ray Mackender set up the British Music Hall Society in 1963 as the last gasps of that era drifted away. The Society, which is now 57 years old, is organising the Music Hall and Variety Day on 16th May, what would have been long-standing Society President Roy Hudd’s birthday. Sadly, Roy died in March this year, so now the tribute includes Roy himself.

So thank you to all the amazing acts, writers, musicians who gave Music Hall its joie de vivre and Variety its spice. Sadly, we shall never see their like again. In the words of the great Max Miller, “there’ll never be another!”.

AFTERWORD The two photos above are of one of the most fondly remembered variety acts, Wilson, Keppel and Betty, and here is some film of them doing the sand dance from their most famous routine, “Cleopatra’s Nightmare”. Enjoy!

Time to Remember: Lena Horne at the Adelphi Theatre

Lena Horne, who died ten years ago this month, was one of the most sophisticated song stylists of her generation. In this appreciation ANTHONY FIELD recalls his association with her and her history, living as she did through times which were not as enlightened as our current society’s. But most of all, it celebrates her triumphs as an artist – no one was going to silence this lady and her music!

This tribute dates from May 2010

One of the first decisions I had to make when I took up the post as Finance Director at Theatre Projects was whether to extend the season of Lena Horne’s THE LADY AND HER MUSIC which we presented at the Adelphi Theatre in London in August 1984. Faced with the age-old show business dilemma I had to decide whether the first sell-out month should be extended for a second month. We had pioneered opening the show on Sundays and closing on Mondays which had proved successful but we still had to decide whether to extend the season (and risk losing an extra month of business) or to risk finding that would-be ticket buyers who had initially failed to obtain tickets would not come back. This was the dilemma I recorded in The Stage newspaper of 9 August 1984.

The show was an absolute sell-out and proved that Lena Horne was right to postpone her retirement planned for 1980. This last appearance of Lena in London is recalled by many of us who are sad to hear of her death this month (May 2010) at the age of 92.

I first saw her live at her London Palladium debut in August 1950 when she played to enraptured audiences for two sold-out weeks. Her husband, Lennie Hayton, MGM’s Musical Director, conducted his own exciting arrangements opening with “You Do Something To Me” which raised the roof. The variety bill supporting her included Bernard Miles and Billy Cotton and his band. I never asked her what she thought of them! (She returned for another successful season at the Palladium in June 1952).

Born in Brooklyn on 30 June 1917 she was the daughter of an actress and a hotel operator. Her early life was unsettled as her parents divorced when she was three and she spent her childhood living with various relatives. As a young girl she planned to be a teacher but the Depression came and she left the Brooklyn High School For Girls and went to a dancers’ audition at the Cotton Club. She was hired and spent three years learning all about show business from some of the greats including Billie Holliday, Cab Calloway, Count Basie and Duke Ellington.

She married Louis Jones and had two children, Ted and Gail, but the marriage failed and Lena divorced him after four years. She then joined Charlie Barnett’s band as their singer and was spotted by MGM’s music supervisor Roger Edens, after which MGM producer Arthur Freed offered her a contract.

Her first film was “Panama Hattie” and the studio created special make-up for her called “Light Egyptian”. Her next film was “Cabin in the Sky” when she played opposite Ethel Waters but MGM did not offer her another assignment, loaning her out to 20th Century-Fox for “Stormy Weather” where she played opposite Bill Robinson and the Nicholas Brothers. She then appeared in “As Thousands Cheer”, “Swing Fever”, “Broadway Rhythm”, “Two Girls and a Sailor”, “Ziegfeld Follies” and “Till the Clouds Roll By” but she was always limited to a guest spot number which could be cut out when the film was shown in southern US states’ theatres without affecting the plot. Her last film at MGM was “Duchess of Idaho” in 1950.

During World War Two Lena became the pin-up for hundreds of thousands of black GIs and was firm in her refusal to appear on any tours unless black soldiers were admitted as part of the audience.

In 1950, Lena announced her three-year secret marriage to Lennie Hayton. Their marriage of 24 years ended with his sudden death in 1971 which ended what was a real love match.

Being black in Hollywood’s white society was not easy and for a long time her only real friend there was Orson Welles. Living in a wealthy neighbourhood, the residents there were convinced that she “lowered the tone of the place”. But Humphrey Bogart and Peter Lorre constantly came to her defence.

Surprisingly, her only big success in a Broadway musical was “Jamaica” with music by Harold Arlen and lyrics by Yip Harburg. It opened in October 1957 with a cast including Ricardo Montalban and Adelaide Hall and ran for 555 performances.

After Lennie Hayton’s death she lived a quiet life in Santa Barbara. Her son Ted also died in 1971 of a kidney ailment and her daughter Gail had married Sidney Lumet, giving Lena her beloved two grandsons and three granddaughters.

In 1980 she was persuaded to spend a year of planning, writing, honing and rehearsing “The Lady And Her Music” which opened at the Nederlander Theatre on 12 May 1981. The reviews were unanimously sensational and it became the hottest ticket in New York, receiving a special Tony Award, the Drama Desk Award and the New York Drama Critics’ Award. Its 14-month run made it the longest running one-woman show in Broadway history.

Lena finally brought the show to London when Michael Billington wrote that “her timing, phrasing and emotional voltage remain as powerful as ever. In “Bewitched, Bothered and Bewildered” she takes a line like “I’m a real, ripe, juicy plum again” and delivers every syllable into your lap with onomatopoeic suggestiveness. And she can even take the ride in “Surrey With the Fringe On Top” and, through fierce, whispered enunciation of every particle of every word, turn it into something full of moonlit eroticism.”

Opening the evening with Rodgers and Hart’s “A Lady Must Live”, she ended the evening of 22 songs with “Stormy Weather”.

She told me at dinner after that first night that “After this Adelphi engagement I’m going to call it a day. It’s time to concentrate on my five grandchildren. Enough is enough!”

With thanks to the Estate of Anthony Field for permission to publish this article.

AFTERWORD An audio recording of the 1981 Broadway run was made and is available through a wide range of streaming outlets including Spotify and Amazon Music

ADDITION You will be pleased to hear that a recording of the entire Broadway show has turned up on my favourite archive, YouTube. You can find it here

Billington’s Bounty

You may be inclined to catch up on your theatre reading (and writing) during the UK’s current enforced hiatus, and to help you the Guardian has very helpfully posted on its website a selection of Michael Billington’s writings across the five decades of his tenure at the Guardian. Well worth a read! And of course The Guardian does not have a paywall. Something to be grateful for! But do please consider supporting the free press by subscribing (it’s very inexpensive to do so), and if not (or as well) please consider making a donation to a theatrical charity at this very difficult time for freelance theatre creatives. Thank You!

You can find the Guardian’s Billington Archive here

Time to Remember: Stephen Sondheim at Oxford – an appreciation by Anthony Field

While the live theatre scene is paused, here is the first a series which aims to fill the gap. It delves into the past to remind us of certain interesting or memorable events. And what better way to start than with Stephen Sondheim. You’ll probably have seen that Stephen Sondheim turned 90 today, so a very Happy Birthday to you, Mr S!

Here’s an article from July 1990, in which ANTHONY FIELD looks back at the inaugural Visiting Professor of Contemporary Theatre – Stephen Sondheim, at the end of the first year of the establishment of a new Chair of Contemporary Theatre at Oxford University, created by Cameron Mackintosh.

Focusing on Musicals in that year, Sondheim assembled an incredible range of performers, composers and lyricists. Participants included Patti Lupone, Jonathan Pryce, Julia McKenzie, Arthur Laurents, Tim Rice, Alain Boublil, Claude-Michel Schönberg, Burt Shevelove, John Weidman, Melvyn Bragg and Mark Steyn – almost all of whom have some input into the discussions outlined in this fascinating digest of some of the sessions. Enjoy the read!

The establishment of a Chair of Contemporary Theatre at Oxford University in 1989/90 by Cameron Mackintosh was indeed an historic event. In particular, the appointment of Stephen Sondheim as the Visiting Professor of Contemporary Theatre was a first attempt to acknowledge that the musical has finally come of age. It is, after all, half a century since in the United States the Pulitzer prizes recognised Rodgers and Hammerstein alongside Arthur Miller.

A dozen absorbing sessions during this year at St Catherine’s College dealt with such varied subjects as the History of Musical Theatre, Lighting and Stage Design, Orchestration, Musical Direction and Sound Design, Producing in the Musical Theatre, the influence of performers on the writing and construction of musicals, the development of “sung-through” musicals as distinct from book musicals and finally two days of Master Classes presenting excerpts from musicals composed and written by Professor Sondheim’s leading students, sung and acted by members of the casts of LES MISERABLES, PHANTOM OF THE OPERA and MISS SAIGON.

One of these musicals was an adaptation by Michael Bland of MEASURE FOR MEASURE which was significant to Jonathan Pryce who, as the lead in MISS SAIGON, had maintained that it was easier to keep a performance fresh and sustain the characterisation in a musical than in straight theatre. “Even after a year, when that orchestra starts it innervates you into a wonderful release of emotions. Whereas in Shakespeare and Chekhov I find myself counting the performances – even half a performance in the interval – in MISS SAIGON I find continually new and exciting things in the song and dance and characterisation. After a month in UNCLE VANYA I need a psychiatrist to stop me going mad and after six months in MISS SAIGON I asked a psychiatrist why I am not going mad”. Apparently, research is being undertaken into the discovery of confined areas of the brain used only for singing. During Alain Boublil and Claude-Michel Schönberg’s research into conditions in Vietnam it was indicated that during their worst plight the population there often communicated only in song. Similarly, Nicholas Hytner’s production of GHETTO had illustrated how much past music had emanated from tragedy.

Performers such as Julia McKenzie (FOLLIES), Philip Quast (SUNDAY IN THE PARK WITH GEORGE) and Patti Lupone (LES MISERABLES) explained the problems of appearing in musicals that had not been written for them in the way that Broadway shows had been written for such performers as Ethel Merman, Mary Martin, Al Jolson, Eddie Cantor, Gertrude Lawrence and Chita Rivera whose vocal ranges and acting capabilities were understood by the composers and conductors so that microphones were not required. Naturally the size and ambiance of theatre auditoria were significant factors in the success or failure of musicals and performers can be greatly affected by the transfer of a successful production from a suitable smaller space to an unsuitable larger one. “Hits are more fragile than flops!”.

The analysis of the writing and construction of musicals, like operas, varied from a composer like Sondheim who delivered a finished product, to Andrew Lloyd Webber who allowed changes by performers just as Ethel Merman had demanded of Irving Berlin and Cole Porter.

Jonathan Pryce admitted he had written a few of the lyrics for MISS SAIGON including four extra lines required during an artist’s change (unfortunately these very lines were quoted by some critics to demonstrate that Alain Boublil’s lyrics were banal!). The most quoted lyrics from CATS were by Richard Stilgoe and not T S Eliot. Three important songs in LES MISERABLES were written at the request of the actors in rehearsal who felt that the through-action was too shallow without musical strengthening at those moments (STARS, BRING HIM HOME, and DOG EATS DOG).

The sessions with Alain Boublil, Claude-Michel Schönberg, Tim Rice, John Weidman, Arthur Laurents, Stephen Sondheim and Melvyn Bragg were particularly illuminating. Kurt Weill had maintained that audiences don’t want to hear “Would you like a glass of white wine?” sung, and yet Mark Steyn pointed out that more drinks were poured in the libretto of ASPECTS OF LOVE than in the bars in the interval. It was generally agreed that there was a problem of having to sing basic information although there appears to be a current vogue whereby the public are flocking to musicals without dialogue (LES MISERABLES, MISS SAIGON). Schönberg and Boublil agreed about the benefit of not having been nurtured with an upbringing in musicals which were not a tradition in France. Thus, they had to create their own style whereby there is a perfect synthesis of all the elements – music, word, direction and design. They had evolved a personal method of working as an integral whole, so much so that if they agreed to change one bar they needed almost to change the whole libretto.

In contrast, Tim Rice, whilst expressing admiration for the unified writing of Schönberg and Boublil, found it difficult to sit down with a composer and write with a blank page in front of them. He required the restriction of eight musical notes- the strict boundary within which he had to find the few words to convey what had to be said. He suggested that while composers needed to be able to “wander off”, lyricists needed discipline. Sondheim insisted that content dictates form and considered that to sing the banalities of exposition was like an endless chocolate sauce smothering a scene. Tim Rice agreed that it was easier to sing “give me another country” (EVITA) than “pass me the salt” (ASPECTS OF LOVE). Arthur Laurents confirmed that alternating scenes without music and scenes with music helped to pace the action. Sondheim suggested that a composer wrote musical fragments on and on until sometimes a song developed as in WOZZECK, in contrast to CARMEN where songs alternated with other songs. He did not consider this was the same with SWEENEY TODD where he kept the under-scoring going continuously to prevent the plot from appearing silly. His next musical is ASSASSINS with a book by John Weidman (PACIFIC OVERTURES) and would require a drop in tension achieved by contrasting speech and song. He cited WEST SIDE STORY as being much more effective than if the street gangs had sung all the time. Burt Shevelove had pointed out the wisdom of Plautus in writing one-hour long farces because longer ones become wearisome. Hence the songs in A FUNNY THING HAPPENED ON THE WAY TO THE FORUM give you time to catch your breath since the action accumulates and becomes so fast that songs are demanded by the text.

The enormous craftsmanship required in the creation of a musical was constantly evoked. GYPSY had made enormous demands on the creative team. Originally Ethel Merman had insisted on stopping the show with ROSE’S TURN to take a bow since it was clear that audiences wanted to applaud her. However, in giving them the opportunity to release themselves they did not give proper attention to the important last scene. Accordingly, when Angela Lansbury played it in London it was arranged by Arthur Laurents for Rose to continue taking bows in a spotlight until the applause finished and the spot died and then she would go on taking bows in silence again and again so that it dawned on the audience that she was having a nervous breakdown and the daughter then became the mother, and the mother the daughter.

All the composers and lyricists insisted that they simply wrote what they themselves liked. Only time would tell if any of the works would out-live them. The great operas of previous centuries were largely forgotten and the present repertoire of opera houses was composed of the few survivors. In Beethoven’s time, Ludwig Spohr was the most popular composer – the public flocked to his FAUST (1818) and JESSONDA (1823) both of which have completely disappeared, but not Beethoven.

Within a week of Professor Sondheim’s Master Classes, John Maucieri, the Musical Director of Scottish Opera, delivered a superb speech in Glasgow to the International Society of Professional Arts Administrators in which he referred to Britain’s “hardening of the categories”. He maintained that LES MISERABLES was the popular opera of the 1990s just as Puccini’s works were a century ago. Similarly, Professor Sondheim saw no difference between PORGY AND BESS, PARSIFAL and WEST SIDE STORY. Ricordi had marketed Puccini’s operas with ice-cream boys on bicycles whistling the popular arias, just as disc jockeys now play the songs of MISS SAIGON. The great composers we revere today were, in their time, writing to audience demand like craftsmen.

What is of great concern is that the University academics have not yet indicated that they are prepared to enter into serious debate about musicals with composers and conductors such as Leonard Bernstein, John Maucieri and Stephen Sondheim. They owe it to this new Chair to be ready to assess musicals using the same criteria as for other art forms.

What we need to do is to analyse why a certain formation of notes (B, G, B, G, A, F, G, D, G, D, F) which make up “Un bel di, vedremo levarsi un fil de fumo” is regarded as great art whereas a similar group of notes which form “The Last Night of the World” is “just a musical”. Why is the libretto of MADAME BUTTERFLY (“One fine day we’ll notice a thread of smoke arising”) part of operatic history to be studied at Oxford but the libretto of MISS SAIGON (“A cry that tells us love goes on and on”) simply part of a West End “show”? If academics maintain one cannot dissect an opera in this way and it is the composite whole that matters, what about the composite whole of SUNDAY IN THE PARK WITH GEORGE at the National Theatre?

John Maucieri laid a great deal of the blame for the present situation in music education and the gulf between art and society at the door of critics, particularly those who ignore popular concerts and those who side with the composer against the listener. Perhaps, he wondered, they are popular because no critics were there to tell you whether to like it or not. They followed Arnold Schoenberg’s definition “If it’s popular it isn’t art”. Yet the visual arts have never split into “popular” and “classical”. The British music categorisations never cease to make one wonder: “Mainly for pleasure”, Music in our Time”, “Classics for Pleasure” (as distinct, no doubt, from “Classics for Pain”?). Further, music critics do not cover the enormous range of music constantly composed for films and television. Bernard Hermann’s score for Hitchcock’s PSYCHO went to the very essence of the film, and similarly Elizabeth Parker’s score for David Attenborough’s THE WORLD AROUND US.

Only rarely do critics acknowledge film scores such as the Sir Arthur Bliss music for THINGS TO COME or the WEST SIDE STORY dances by Leonard Bernstein. Certainly the music of Michel Legrand and Henry Mancini is ignored and, furthermore, prejudicial terminology splits even more the popular field: Ragtime, Jazz, Swing, Bebop, Hillbilly, Blues, Rock, Country, Folk and so on. Try looking for various works in major shops. Apart from Rock and Classics nearly everything else is under “Easy Listening” or “Orchestral (Miscellaneous)”!

Finally, if time is a factor in that TOSCA has been around long enough to have become “great art”, does this mean that OKLAHOMA! only has to wait 100 years for similar recognition? One is bound to recall that the first performance of MADAME BUTTERFLY at La Scala Milan on February 17th 1904 was “a complete failure – one of the great fiascos of operatic history” according to Kobbe.

Next year (1990/91) the Cameron Mackintosh Chair of Contemporary Theatre turns its attention to Drama when the Visiting Professor will be Ian McKellen.

Article reproduced by kind permission of the Estate of Anthony Field.